Inside Of Faraday Future's financial house of cards
Inside Of Faraday Future's financial house of cards

While Faraday Long Run emerged from stealth mode in 2015, it promised to radically change the automobile trade with an American-made luxury electrical vehicle that may one day be fully self sustaining, perhaps even bought through a subscription carrier. As we discovered at CES 2017, the company used to be taking aim at Tesla with a car — the FF91 — that used to be designed to dazzle, with a zero–60 time of 2.4 seconds as jaw-shedding as the proposed $180,000 ticket.

Given That then, even though, Faraday Long Run has been more all for survival than velocity. The Verge has discovered from multiple resources concerning the nature of the corporate ’s monetary plight. Whilst Faraday Long Run posed because the newest California electric automobile startup that attracted most sensible automobile trade skill, 10 former employees and one person with reference to the corporate say the conduct and industry practices of its leader investor have introduced industry to a halt. the previous staff, so much of whom left Faraday Long Run at other points throughout the last 15 months, requested anonymity as a result of nondisclosure agreements with the company. the opposite requested anonymity out of concern of litigation.

Their accounts improve and build on previous reports, and paint a more comprehensive image of unusual monetary control by means of the two other people so much immediately responsible of the company ’s funds: Jia Yueting, the principle investor and shareholder, and Chaoying Deng, who has held various titles at the corporate, but lists herself as the corporate ’s vice president of management on LinkedIn.

Got a tip for us? Use SecureDrop or Sign to securely send messages and information to The Verge with out revealing your identification.

Where the company stands financially is doubtful. 4 high-degree former employees with knowledge of the corporate ’s funds informed The Verge as recently as early December that, barring a brand new money infusion, Faraday Long Run handiest has enough budget to maintain its payroll afloat throughout the end of the yr. However Yueting, who is known as YT, remains to be meeting with possible investors to keep the corporate alive, and will have secured a brand new spherical of investment, consistent with considered one of these people.

Both manner, according to a couple of resources, many final workers are making plans their exits, or have left. Others are merely no longer appearing up for paintings; while YT arrived at the corporate ’s Gardena, California, headquarters at the morning of Monday, November 20th to fulfill a bunch of possible buyers, he discovered so few staff on site that an electronic mail, which used to be obtained by way of The Verge, was once despatched to team of workers by means of Faraday Long Run ’s head of pass-to market technique that bolstered the company ’s paintings hours.

the majority of those assets say YT inflated monetary guarantees to the corporate, they usually imagine his objectives overmatched the company ’s waning cash drift. Their debts recommend he insisted on keeping money, highbrow belongings, and workers fluid between Faraday Long Run and the electrical automotive attempt of LeEco, a tech conglomerate he founded in China. and lots of assets say that he left Deng, who had little enjoy operating the accounting of a company this massive, responsible of the money.

Reached for comment at the issues pointed out in this file, a spokesperson for the company issued a unique reaction: “As a private corporate, Faraday Future is not going to talk about its funds, nor can we talk about the price range of our buyers.”

Representatives for Faraday Long Run admit that YT is the principle monetary backer of the corporate, however have maintained that the company was once unbiased from his Chinese Language conglomerate LeEco, that is recently mired in controversy. YT himself once said on Twitter that he’s “just an investor and strategic spouse of FF.”

His involvement runs deeper than that of a standard investor, in step with those former staff. And his influence began at the company ’s inception, while he came in conjunction with Lotus and Tesla executives Tony Nie and Nick Sampson in 2014 to assist start Faraday Long Run, these other folks say. the company was once integrated in the spring as “LeTV ENV Inc.,” in keeping with files filed with the California secretary of state, and later that summer time, the title used to be modified to Faraday&Long Run Inc.

That Very Same 12 months, La County belongings records show, a company referred to as Ocean View Power, Inc. bought a six-bedroom, eight-bath mansion within the tony Los Angeles County group of Rancho Palos Verdes for $7 million. 12 months later, the company bought further properties on the similar boulevard for just over $7 million each and every. In files filed with the California secretary of state in 2016, YT was indexed as the CEO of Ocean View Force, Inc. (Information of Ocean View Drive, Inc. and the first mansion had been first stated by means of Jalopnik in November.)

Round early 2015, Faraday Long Run ’s founding executives introduced YT with a plan for the corporate that desirous about one type made in one small factory, in line with former employees with direct knowledge of the corporate ’s budget. the unique purpose, those other people recall, used to be to one day make about 50,000 of those automobiles a 12 months.

YT inflated early production objectives, sources say

But those people say that YT wasn ’t pleased with that plan. He driven for a miles bigger manufacturing facility in Nevada, like Tesla — a company that Faraday Future ’s executives considered as a competitor, and person who it had poached talent from — and greater the manufacturing goal to a couple of models and 150,000 devices according to 12 months. The finance staff spent weeks recalculating for this change in scope, these other people say, and finally made up our minds the necessary investment cost can be approximately $3 billion.

“Once he saw that plan, he was once like, ‘Neatly if four fashions and 150,000 is good, then we must give you the option to go to FIVE million automobiles. What ’s it going to take to visit 5 million cars? ’” recollects one of these former workers. “That ’s the kind of man that he was once, it was like, ‘Ok, but shall we even assume bigger. i would like to be at FIVE million automobiles by way of the end of 2025. In 10 years. ’”

YT ’s involvement in the decision-making procedure, plus his penchant for requesting adjustments to the flagship automobile ’s layout dragged construction, consistent with some assets. Other former employees bear in mind an afternoon-long assembly devoted to naming every of these new models.

Ding Lei, an executive who also worked for LeEco on its LeSee brand of electric vehicles, took the finance workforce ’s information to China to offer to YT, consistent with a couple of former staff who had been operating at the company on the time. The physical distance among the company ’s executives in California and LeEco executives in China increased frustrations throughout the corporate that YT was looking to “shadow take care of” Faraday Future, former workers say. And there was confusion among employees about LeSee, which gave the impression to outsiders to be a competitor to Faraday Long Run ’s automobile.

Patents filed with the united states Patent and Trademark Place Of Work show that Faraday Future ’s intellectual belongings was shared with LeSee. without equal goal, in step with multiple workers aware of Faraday Long Run ’s manufacturing plans, used to be to supply the LeSee automobile the use of the similar production strains Faraday could use to make its personal automotive, the FF91. the corporate ignored a planned 2016 CES reveal in part on account of YT ’s consistent changes, these people say.

Despite delays the selection of employees continued to grow — from around 500 to 600 folks on the end of 2015 to just about 1,500 within the summer of 2016. “Which used to be ludicrous, they didn ’t have work for 1,500 people,” says one of the previous workers with knowledge of the company ’s budget. “the folk who came from Tesla, who you might have concept would ’ve had a startup mentality having long gone in the course of the tricky times [there]. They were just like, ‘you realize, i have a company of 200 people approved, so I ’m going to move out and hire them, even supposing I don ’t have the rest for them to do, ’” this former employee says.

the company never stopped growing, even on the first indicators of hassle

The scope of the business was formidable as they pursued plans for a $1 billion manufacturing facility in the Nevada desert, much like Tesla did with its Gigafactory. Other websites had been considered but dismissed by means of YT and the company ’s management (together with the founding executives and YT ’s workforce from China), a couple of assets say. Factories in Illinois, Georgia, and Louisiana have been all visited, in keeping with emails and files acquired by The Verge.

“Mitsubishi used to be sitting on its old plant,” a second particular person with direct knowledge of the company ’s finances says, relating to the normal, Illinois, manufacturing unit that the japanese car manufacturer closed in 2015. “And the price of the plant was one dollar. Retooling might have most effective cost among $ONE HUNDRED and $TWO HUNDRED million.”

The native governments in Shreveport, Louisiana, presented blended incentives worth hundreds of hundreds of thousands of dollars, as was once not too long ago reported by Jalopnik. But YT ’s formidable guidance had emboldened the leadership, sources say.

“They desired to construct a new plant with a tumbler facade within the middle of the barren region as it would develop into a tourist enchantment,” this particular person says, which other resources improve. That way, “it ’s near Vegas, people would drink an excessive amount of after which they ’d stroll in, i suppose. As A Result Of that ’s fun?”

Faraday Future ’s unchecked expansion became a problem whilst payments to the company from YT and other Chinese Language traders dried up over the process 2016. YT used to be dealing with mounting issues at LeEco in China, and whilst he used to be nonetheless shaping the scope of Faraday ’s greatest objectives, the day-to-day budget were controlled by means of another person, consistent with just about everybody spoken to for this story: Chaoying Deng.

Deng ’s name turns up with regards to all over you look whilst it comes to Faraday Future and LeEco. She ’s labeled secretary of Faraday Long Run in a 2014 California state document where the corporate ’s authentic identify used to be amended to Faraday&Future Inc. She ’s the corporate ’s CEO in later documents filed in 2015 and 2017. Others name her because the president. On one in every of her LinkedIn bills, she lists herself as the “vice chairman of management” of Faraday Future.

Her identify additionally seems on belongings documents related to the now-abandoned place of business that LeEco used for its US headquarters in San Jose, California, and as a signatory on a $ONE HUNDRED FORTY million loan debt on the 50-acre Santa Clara assets LeEco purchased from Yahoo.

Sources say Deng, who comes from the film trade, is on top of things of the corporate ’s cash

But Deng has no heritage within the automobile industry, in line with her LinkedIn profiles and the money owed of former staff who have worked together with her. She ’s a former film manufacturer, who was once an government producer for The Flowers of Struggle starring Christian Bale. She become the director of LeEco ’s US movie arm in 2014, and YT then installed her at Faraday Long Term, the place she was positioned to blame of the corporate ’s accounting, those other folks say.

While Faraday Long Term ’s representatives have all the time mentioned that the company has a “strategic partnership” with LeEco, they have got maintained that the California carmaker was impartial from YT ’s different companies.

However what former workers describe is that, financially, Faraday Future used to be run extra like an affiliate of LeEco, with other people like Deng wielding energy at more than considered one of these firms. According to at least one former employee, YT and Deng justified this closeness through announcing these companies were “a family.” (This individual says this used to be also the explanation given whilst staff asked why Faraday Future was also liable for making the LeSee electric automobile.)

Deng had more control over that money than the corporate ’s finance directors, a couple of former workers say. “She wouldn ’t allow them get entry to to it,” one former worker with regards to the company ’s finances says. “Chaoying is the gatekeeper, ’” some other says. (Deng didn’t respond to more than one requests to be interviewed for this piece, each through direct makes an attempt to reach her and through the corporate ’s communications division.)

The mechanics of exactly how Deng moved cash in and out of Faraday Future wasn ’t completely clear to former employees who spoke to The Verge. that incorporates folks who would routinely have an working out in their company ’s cash float. however it necessarily labored like this: Deng may carry requests for cash to YT and a small cohort of top executives across the companies he ran in China, together with YT ’s nephew Jiawei Wang; that money may then be deposited into a bank account only Deng had get admission to to, sooner than making its way to Faraday Long Term, former employees say. the money used to be then used to pay the corporate payroll and infrequently pay suppliers, but a few of it would go to different LeEco subsidiaries, these folks say.

Exactly the place the money came from was once additionally generally unclear, in keeping with those former workers. they think the money got here from investments made or raised by way of YT; from the Chinese Language LeEco subsidiaries, both right away or via method of the LeEco ’s US arm; or from certainly one of myriad retaining firms in China, Hong Kong, and the Cayman Islands. The entity construction was once a “complicated mess,” another former employee with knowledge of Faraday Long Term ’s finances says.

Faraday Future used to be handled like an associate of Leeco, and the entity structure was a “complicated mess,” former staff say

a relentless cash drift was all the time promised through both YT and Deng, consistent with a selection of former workers. “It was once all the time, ‘Don ’t concern, the money ’s coming next month, the money ’s coming subsequent month, keep going, keep going, keep going,” in step with one. But not only did YT ’s investments stall in mid 2016, the early 2017 promise of a $1 billion convertible be aware from China was never added on, those people say. Instead, the company has only in the near past been hooked up to a be aware of round $400 million, that’s in danger of becoming payable debt if Faraday Long Run doesn ’t elevate Series A investment by means of the tip of 2017, as stated by Bloomberg.

In 2017 especially, in line with more than one former staff with wisdom of the corporate’s finances, the money that got here into the company was continuously spent immediately, and there was in most cases “no cash in the financial institution.” the only solid deposits in 2017 were used for company payroll, which value Faraday Long Run about $12 million a month, those former employees say. However even the ones bills, they say, once in a while wouldn ’t be deposited till days before they were due.

“The books and records were in unhealthy form,” one former worker with knowledge of the corporate ’s budget says. This particular person described the company as lacking some of the standard procedures installed place, like requiring authorizations for things like money disbursements, or acquire orders. Any Other former employee with an identical wisdom of the company ’s funds agreed with the evaluation. “This was extremely atypical from an inside controls point of view,” the second former worker says. “no person particular person should give you the chance to do the whole lot with an account.”

Those accounts had been supported through others spoken to for this tale, lots of whom say it contributed to the company ’s present monetary woes. A Couple Of former employees say the haphazard solution to structuring the corporate ’s budget is why the accounting firm KPMG reduce ties with Faraday Future, as mentioned by way of Jalopnik in advance this yr.

It ’s additionally what drove some of the Faraday Future ’s finance directors to leave the corporate, consistent with former employees.

One such former director used to be Syed Rahman, who resigned in June 2016 after spending a year as a controller in the corporate ’s monetary planning and analysis division. “All Over my time at Faraday, the corporate lacked an empowered CEO and COO,” Rahman tells The Verge in an e-mail. “This, blended with an absence of working out of Western trade practices, reality based totally choice making, and compliance problems exacerbated the problems. The automobile industry is highly capital extensive with low margins and with out a lack of efficient leadership, luck on this arena isn’t possible.”

Efforts that have been made to shore up the financial scenario were brushed aside, former employees say. for instance, while Faraday Future signed a deal to pay $500 million to engineering firm AECOM for its Nevada manufacturing unit, the leadership didn ’t save for a 2d bid, in keeping with documents and emails seen by way of The Verge. When one in all the corporate ’s finance administrators at the time protested the move, which former staff describe as uncharacteristic for a deal this massive, he was asked to leave the meeting, according one person who was once present.

In 2016, the corporate used to be presented with an opportunity to boost investments totaling round $1 billion. But YT, Deng, and Wang refused to offer the finance crew with term sheets that spelled out what stakes possible traders would get in return, in accordance a former employee with knowledge of the location.

“you understand, I ’ve been within the automobile trade all my existence, and i just find it hard to match it to a ramen trade.”

Finding it ordinary that this knowledge used to be being withheld, this individual says, “At that time it become fairly transparent to me there was something now not Kosher going on.”

“There ’s no point of them no longer being in a position to proportion information about how much of the corporate are we able to supply away in a investment round except you ’ve got something to hide,” this individual says.

At some other point in 2016, plans had been presented to Deng to replace the company ’s expensive catered lunches with an organization-run kitchen in order to save cash, in keeping with a former employee with knowledge of the situation. Deng grew to become down the idea, mentioning previous enjoy with a ramen trade in Hawaii. She cited this revel in other instances whilst justifying spending choices, too, in step with every other former employee.

“you realize, I ’ve been in the car industry all my existence, and i simply in finding it exhausting to match it to a ramen business,” this particular person says. “i assume there may be production concerned. you put some base, and soup, and also you placed some noodles in there after which possibly you put a few meat. after which it ’s completely synthetic. It goes down a line. but it surely ’s relatively different from building a automotive.”

another position Deng ’s name displays up is with Ocean View Pressure, Inc., the corporate that was used to shop for the 3 mansions in Rancho Palos Verdes. Deng is listed on the corporate ’s incorporation document, which was once filed three days ahead of the acquisition of the first mansion, as each leader monetary officer and secretary.

YT stayed at these cliffside estates from time to time over the past 12 months whilst he visited the industry, but he has taken up everlasting residence there after leaving China this summer season, consistent with a couple of resources with knowledge of the placement.

Several other people describe them as pseudo-inns for vital visitors, experience spaces for the company ’s employees, and places to host lavish dinners intended to provoke possible buyers.

“you need to power a Lamborghini? Here you move. you wish to have to drive a Ferrari? Here you move. Whatever you need.”

“These people would come into Faraday Future, glance on the plant, then they would get carte blanche,” says one individual with direct knowledge of the placement. “you wish to have to pressure a Lamborghini? Here you move. you wish to have to force a Ferrari? Right Here you go. Whatever you wish to have. you wish to have an property? Here you go.”

The privilege of staying in those multimillion-greenback mansions was once extended to a couple of the most senior executives at Faraday Long Run, in line with more than one former staff. “Like, permit ’s say they are living in Ohio, but they ’re an car government, and so they ’re not going to transport their entire family to work for FF,” says one among them, who labored on the auto tasks of both LeEco and Faraday Future. “they would reside there in the course of the week. in preference to paying for expensive FIVE-celebrity hotels, the company would put them in a 5-superstar mansion as an alternative.”

Deng additionally lives at one of those mansions, in line with more than one former employees, and in June, she was served lawsuit papers at certainly one of them at 7:15AM. She took up place of abode on the mansions as a result of, except her tasks at Faraday Long Term, it ’s up to her to regulate these homes, a couple of former staff say. that incorporates ensuring YT is “smartly treated” through maintaining his place of dwelling stocked with expensive wine, whiskey, steak, and different facilities, one says, an account that echoes details shared by different sources with knowledge of the location.

But some sources say the houses are for more than safe haven. in line with two former staff with knowledge of Faraday Future ’s budget, YT and Deng tried to use those homes as collateral to boost cash for the corporate in 2016. Considering The Fact That they weren ’t owned by means of Faraday Future, the corporate ’s finance crew stopped the trouble.

within the closing year, YT has dropped from thirty first to 1,978th at the Hurun Document, a listing of China ’s wealthiest electorate. Financial issues and turmoil have racked LeEco, which has carriers and creditors literally camping in its foyer waiting to be paid. In turn, YT ’s been staying within the U.s.a. due to the fact resigning from the highest put up of LeEco ’s retaining corporate this summer time, in step with multiple former staff and a source close to YT.

However YT faces struggles within the U.s.a., too — and so does the automobile company he now controls.

New court cases, three of which have been in the past stated via Jalopnik, are piling on most sensible of ones that had already been filed against Faraday Long Term.

One lawsuit filed against YT contains Deng and Ocean View Force, Inc. as defendants. The plaintiff, Miles Bernal, claims to were hired to help run operations on the mansions, and argues that he was once wrongfully terminated from the corporate. The lawsuit argues that YT and Deng “used Ocean View Drive, Inc. to engage in unlawful and wrong actions,” together with the co-mingling of finances and the non-public use of corporate assets and cash.

Both YT and the company are embroiled in complaints

Faraday Future is being sued through Oloroso, LLC, an organization that catered the development at CES the place the corporate unveiled the FF91. Oloroso claims that Faraday refused to pay a ultimate stability of $100,000 that it owes for the food and services and products equipped on the adventure in January. Faraday Long Term may be being sued through a legislation company that it employed to help it position the FF91 in Transformers 5. And the auto corporate is named as a defendant in a lawsuit that accuses considered one of its employees of sexual harassment and cyberstalking.

In another lawsuit, Beim Maple Houses is suing for breach of settlement, and soliciting for damages of greater than $15 million, claiming owed and future rent. Beim evicted Faraday Future from a small place of business space in Torrance, California, that used to be being used as a layout studio on the start of 2017, in keeping with the suit. (BuzzFeed had previously stated in 2016 that Faraday Long Run used to be at the back of on hire bills to Beim.) The signatories on the lease agreement for the property are Deng and Wang, YT ’s nephew, in keeping with documents integrated within the lawsuit. former workers with knowledge of the placement tell The Verge that Deng went in advance with leasing this actual belongings regardless of warnings from the finance team that there wasn ’t sufficient cash to do so at the time.

In October, YT filed a libel lawsuit towards Gu Yingqiong, a instrument developer in Washington who runs a WeChat account referred to as “Dr. Yingqiong Gu Talks Concerning The International.” Gu has made many accusations on his weblog, qualified translations of which The Verge has learn because they had been incorporated the lawsuit. they vary from criticisms in regards to the feng shui of YT ’s mansions to way more severe claims, together with that YT was using Ocean View Drive, Inc. to launder money throughout the houses in Rancho Palos Verdes. He compares YT to Bernie Madoff, calling Faraday Future and the cash surrounding it a “Ponzi scheme.” He also claims in every other submit that YT is making use of for a inexperienced card through the EB1C program to avoid returning to China.

The posts had been also publicly denounced via YT. considered one of Gu ’s posts in particular it seems that sparked YT ’s criminal action. On September 14th, Gu posted what he claims to be a draft copy of a $75 million accept as true with fund that YT arrange for his kids, and alleged that the money used to be taken from Faraday Long Term ’s coffers. a day later, the website interviewed Gu concerning the put up, in step with a duplicate of the interview integrated in the lawsuit. “in the event that they assume this record is fake, they may be able to sue me in court,” Gu stated. YT ’s filed go well with not up to one month later, and in the initial criticism, his lawyers call Gu’s habits “a continual and systematic effort by way of a person to intimidate, harass, and defame a stranger over the internet.”

Meanwhile, Faraday Long Run has dipped again below 1,000 workers in California, consistent with statements made by means of YT in the lawsuit filed towards Gu Yingqiong. LinkedIn is flush with newly departed “Faradians,” as they ’re known as at the company.

Krause made calls for earlier than and after resigning, together with Deng ’s removal, consistent with former workers

the velocity of departures is rising following the new public spat between YT and Stefan Krause, in keeping with more than one resources with knowledge of the situation. Krause, a former govt at Deutsche Bank and BMW, used to be brought to Faraday Long Term in March to put the corporate on the proper monetary monitor. By Way Of and massive, he caught to that commitment, these people say. Krause killed off what he noticed as frivolous expenses, like the corporate ’s involvement in motorsports, the product placement maintain the Transformers movie franchise, and he even made up our minds to sever LeEco ’s partnership with Aston Martin, in keeping with those resources.

Krause tried to detangle corporate ’s budget and cause them to more clear, former employees who just lately left the corporate say. But YT ’s reluctance to relinquish keep watch over as majority stakeholder and determination-maker, and his refusal to discover Bankruptcy 11 chapter, stood in the means, consistent with these other folks. Krause resigned on October 14th along with CTO Ulrich Kranz, a couple of assets say, having made demands that YT wouldn ’t meet — including that YT put off Deng from the company. These discussions persisted even after Krause resigned, according to those former workers, however got here to an finish while news broke of the CFO ’s departure in November. the company continues that Krause used to be fired.

Prior To Krause left, a few staff who remained at Faraday Long Term had been dutifully taking steps to proceed with its plan to produce the FF91 in Hanford, California — another manufacturing facility web page the corporate had thought to be in 2015 sooner than finding out to pursue Nevada.

In September, SVP of global manufacturing (and founding government) Dag Reckhorn spoke at the the town ’s rotary club meeting, and in October he offered at a local economic development event. Obrie Hostetter, who manages the company ’s charging solutions workforce, not too long ago attended a California Air Instruments Board meeting in reinforce of the usage of finances from the Volkswagen Dieselgate settlement to convey charging infrastructure to the realm, in keeping with emails got by means of The Verge in a public data request.

removed from the chaos swirling within the company, city officers expressed enthusiasm within the weeks that followed the declaration that a probably top player in the electrical automobile marketplace was coming to the city. Phones were “ringing off the hook,” in step with one email, and inboxes had been stuffed with congratulations.

“the two people are the electric vehicle production middle of the universe.”

In an August e-mail, Hanford town supervisor Darrel Pyle asked a fellow town manager approximately grants gained by GreenPower, an electrical bus company in a close-by town. “Considering the 2 folks are the electric vehicle manufacturing center of the universe,” he wrote, “I ’d love to follow as much as see if Faraday Future might qualify!”

In another thread, Kings County Financial Construction Place Of Work president John Lehn thanked Pyle for the city ’s help in splitting a $1,TWO HUNDRED bill for ice cream that was once provided on the manufacturing facility cleanup day Faraday Future held on the new facility.

“Sooo value every penny,” Pyle spoke back.

By November, that optimistic tone had vanished. “that is frightening,” a manager for the Kings County EDC said in a November thirteenth e mail to Lehn, Pyle, and others, while sharing a link to the inside track of Krause ’s departure.

One hour sooner than that, Pyle despatched an e mail to Faraday Long Term ’s Detrick Sanford and Kevin Vincent, the federal government members of the family and regulatory affairs leads for the Hanford manufacturing unit mission. the topic was “I ’m getting calls.”

“Gentlemen! Some local journalists are calling asking if Faraday remains to be coming. Is there any information we will be able to share if requested, or is there anything you can share with us, and we received ’t percentage?” he wrote. “Simply curious.”

Sanford and Vincent had already left the company whilst he clicked send.

Edited through Tamara Warren

Additional reporting by Zac Estrada